7 Things To Know About Prednisone
Posted On 2022-03-12
1. How it functions
Prednisone is a corticosteroid used to decrease inflammation and calm a hyperactive immune system. It has a high glucocorticoid activity and a low mineralocorticoid activity, therefore it influences the immune response and inflammation rather than the body’s electrolyte and water balance. A glucocorticoid is another name for prednisone.
Prednisone works by simulating the effects of glucocorticoid hormones, which are produced naturally by our adrenal glands in reaction to stress and are necessary for survival. Prednisone steroids-usa is a synthetic (man-made) form of these hormones.
Prednisone decreases inflammation and helps to calm an overactive immune system.
Can help control severe or incapacitating allergy disorders like asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis that are resistant to standard treatment.
Excessive inflammation linked with some eye problems, skin diseases, hematological disorders, and respiratory ailments can be controlled with this medication.
Acute flare-ups or exacerbations of arthritis (including Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and psoriatic arthritis), ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, and other inflammatory illnesses may be treated with this medication.
Short-term use for collagen illnesses such as systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, and acute rheumatic carditis is possible.
Certain leukemias and lymphomas require palliative care.
Mineralocorticoids such as hydrocortisone or cortisone are recommended over prednisone in persons with endocrine abnormalities; however, prednisone may be used in some cases.
Can aid in regaining control of the inflammatory process in conditions including ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis. Some renal problems may be treated with this drug.
Can be utilized for a variety of other conditions on a short-term basis.
Prednisone is accessible in generic form.
3. Negative aspects
If you’re between the ages of 18 and 60, don’t take any other medications, and don’t have any other medical issues, you’re more likely to suffer the following negative effects:
Short-term use has been linked to agitation or irritation, dizziness, indigestion, headache, an irregular heartbeat, edema, and mood disturbances. Moderate-to-long-term use is linked to facial hair development (particularly in women), high blood pressure and other cardiovascular consequences, an increased appetite that may lead to weight gain, sluggish skin healing and skin thinning, osteoporosis (brittle bones), the beginning of diabetes, and stomach ulcers.
Prednisone makes a person more vulnerable to infection. With higher dosages, the risk is greater. Prednisone may disguise some symptoms of illness. Some prednisone-related infections, particularly those connected with viral disorders like chickenpox or measles, have proven fatal.
Prednisone aggravates systemic fungal infections and should not be administered in those who have them (such as candidiasis or aspergillosis).
Latent diseases (those caused by organisms like amoeba, TB, or Toxoplasma) can also be triggered.
Long-term treatment and dosages greater than 7.5 mg/day are more likely to cause side effects. The inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been linked to long-term prednisone use (a complex interactive signaling and feedback system involving the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands).
After treatment, suppression of this axis can lead to corticosteroid insufficiency, in which natural corticosteroid levels are insufficient to maintain important body activities. As a result, moderate-to-long-term prednisone therapy should be gradually tapered off.
During times of stress, the dosage of prednisone must be adjusted.
Prednisone, like all corticosteroids, can promote salt and fluid retention, which can lead to a rise in blood pressure and potassium excretion. Calcium excretion rises as well.
Prednisone use for a long time can impact a child’s growth and development.
Prednisone use has been linked to cataracts, glaucoma, eye infections, an increase in new episodes of optic neuritis, and corneal perforation caused by herpes simplex of the eye.
To assist lessen the risk of gastrointestinal side effects, alcohol should be consumed in moderation or avoided entirely.
Live or live-attenuated vaccines should be delayed for several months after corticosteroid treatment is finished when using large dosages of corticosteroids.
Some people, such as those with cardiovascular disease, low thyroid levels, gastrointestinal problems, pre-existing bone disease, or psychological issues, may not be able to use it.
Some anti-infectives, antidiabetic medications, bupropion, NSAIDs, and medicines processed by CYP 3A4 liver enzymes may interact with this drug.
If the benefits outweigh the hazards, it should be used throughout pregnancy.
When corticosteroids like prednisone are given to a pregnant woman, they can harm the fetus; use during the first trimester is linked to an increased chance of orofacial clefts. There have also been reports of intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Prednisone has been demonstrated to be teratogenic in animal tests. Human milk contains less than 1% of the daily dose of prednisone taken by the mother. Because large doses can create issues in the breastfed newborn, such as growth and developmental delays, and interfere with endogenous corticosteroid synthesis, take the lowest amount possible when breastfeeding.
Note: Seniors and children, as well as persons with specific medical conditions (such as liver or kidney illness, heart disease, diabetes, or seizures) or those who take other medications, are more likely to experience a broader range of side effects. See the full list of adverse effects.
4. The Final Word
Prednisone successfully reduces inflammation and suppresses an overactive immune system, but it is not for everyone. Long-term use is restricted due to the possibility of serious adverse effects such as adrenal suppression and infection. Prednisone should be administered at the lowest effective dose for as little period as feasible.
To lessen the possibility of prednisone negatively impacting your stomach, take it with meals and a full glass of water.
Split doses are recommended over single doses, but greater dosages can be split. Prednisone may be prescribed only every other day for some people (alternate day therapy).
Prednisone should be taken in the morning, before 9 a.m. (unless otherwise directed) to more nearly imitate your body’s normal cortisol secretion. Prednisone should be used exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Never raise your dosage without consulting your doctor first.
It’s risky to abruptly stop taking prednisone. If you’ve been on prednisone for more than a few weeks, your doctor will tell you how to taper it down.
You should not receive any live or live-attenuated vaccines if you are taking greater doses of prednisone. Your immune system’s reaction to dead or inactivated vaccines may be compromised as well.
Avoid contact with anyone who has or has recently had a viral infection like chickenpox or measles. If you mistakenly come into touch with someone, call your doctor right away since you may need immune globulin or antiviral treatment.
To assist lower the risk of indigestion and the development of stomach ulcers when taking prednisone, limit or avoid alcohol consumption.
If you are taking prednisone and feel ill for any reason, contact your doctor as soon as possible.
If you are breastfeeding, pregnant, or planning to become pregnant, tell your doctor since prednisone may not be safe for you.
6. Effectiveness and response
Prednisone is converted to its active form, prednisolone, in the liver in around 60 minutes. The metabolism does not appear to be affected by liver disease. Effects can last anywhere from 18 to 36 hours, allowing for dosage on different days.
During disease flare-ups, stress, or infection, temporary dosage increases may be indicated.
Prednisone is five times more effective than naturally occurring cortisol at reducing inflammation.
Interactions, number seven
When taken with prednisone, medicines that interact with it may lower its effect, modify how long it works, cause side effects, or have less of an effect. When two medications interact, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have to stop taking one of them; nevertheless, it can sometimes. Consult your doctor about how to handle drug interactions.
Prednisone may interact with the following medications:
- clarithromycin, erythromycin, rifabutin, rifampin, or troleandomycin are examples of antibiotics.
- neostigmine or pyridostigmine are anticholinesterases.
- Apixaban, dabigatran, fondaparinux, heparin, or warfarin are anticoagulants (blood thinners).
- antidepressants, such as desipramine, fluoxetine, sertraline, or St. John’s Wort antifungal drugs, such as itraconazole, ketoconazole, or voriconazole antifungal medications, such as itraconazole, ketoconazole, or voriconazole
- antinausea drugs, such as aspirin aprepitant
- Carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone are examples of epilepsy drugs.
- hormonal contraceptives that contain estrogen (includes birth control pills, patches, rings, implants, and injections)
- Amiodarone, diltiazem, and verapamil are examples of heart medicines.
- Anti-HIV drugs (eg, atazanavir, delavirdine, efavirenz, indinavir, etravirine, ritonavir, nevirapine, saquinavir, or tipranavir)
- immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporine
- Celecoxib, diclofenac, etodolac, ibuprofen, ketorolac, meloxicam, nabumetone, or naproxen are examples of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs).
- Dexamethasone and other corticosteroids
- diuretics and potassium-depleting medicines such amphotericin B Injection (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide)
- zafirlukast, for example, is an asthma medicine.
- Vaccinations (may inhibit the immune response)
- Aminoglutethimide, bupropion, cholestyramine, cyclosporine, digoxin, isoniazid, quetiapine, or thalidomide are just a few examples.
Prednisone may cause blood glucose levels to rise in diabetics, necessitating dosage modifications of antidiabetic medications (e.g., insulin, glyburide). Fluoroquinolone medications (such ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) may increase the risk of tendon rupture when used together.
Alcohol can also raise the risk of gastrointestinal side effects with prednisone, as well as liver and kidney damage. Prednisone has the potential to reduce the inflammatory response to skin testing.
This is not an exhaustive list; it only contains common drugs that may interact with prednisone. For a complete list of interactions with prednisone, consult the prescription information.